Resources and exercises

Parts of Speech in Spanish Grammar

We can divide parts of speech into eight different types. Let's take a look at these explanations:

SUSTANTIVOS (nouns)

Nouns are names of things, places, ideas/concepts, or people.

Examples of nouns:

  • Pedro - name of a person
  • Casa (house) - name of a thing
  • Centro comercial (shopping mall) - name of a place
  • Democracia (democracy) - name of a concept (abstract noun)

Remember that in Spanish nouns need to carry the gender and number. To do this correctly, you need to remember the rules and exceptions for feminine and masculine nouns. The basic rule is that nouns that end in 'o' are masculine, and nouns that end in 'a' are feminine. But there are other rules and exceptions you need to know.

PRONOMBRES (pronouns)

Pronouns are words we use to replace nouns. Pronouns carry the same number and gender as the noun they replace.

There are many different pronouns, for example:

  • Personal pronouns: yo, tú, él, nosotros, vosotros, ellos.
  • Demonstrative pronouns: éste, aquél, ésa.
  • Possessive pronouns: los míos, la mía.
  • Relative pronouns: que, quien, el que, la cual.
  • Indefinite pronouns: algo, alguien.

VERBOS (verbs)

Verbs express an action or state that the subject of the sentence performs. In Spanish, there are regular and irregular verbs, and many different verb tenses which you can learn in our Grammar section.

The three infinitive forms that exist are: verbs ending in -ar (hablar), verbs ending in -er (comer) and verbs ending in -ir (vivir).

There are verbs that are transitive (those that need a direct object), and there are verbs that are intransitive (which do not need an object). An example of a transitive verb is preparar. Lucía está preparando la cena (Lucía is preparing dinner). On the other hand, you have intransitive verbs like delinquir. Pedro ha delinquido (Pedro has transgressed).

ADJETIVOS (adjectives)

Adjectives describe and give extra information about nouns. There are descriptive adjectives such as “tonto”, “grande”, and limiting adjectives such as “este”, “aquel”, “cinco”, “mi”, “la”, “los”, etc. Adjectives must agree in number and gender with the noun, so adjectives have different forms. For example: “bueno”, “buena”, “buenos”, “buenas”, “mejor”, “el mejor”.

ADVERBIOS (adverbs)

Adverbs describe or give extra information about a verb, an adjective or another adverb. There are many different type of adverbs:

  • Adverbios de tiempo (adverbs of time): primero, luego, después.
  • Adverbios de lugar (adverbs of place): acá, allá.
  • Adverbios de modo (adverbs of manner): lentamente, mal, bruscamente.
  • Adverbios de afirmación y negación (adverbs of affirmation and negation): sí, no, nunca.

It is important to know that adverbs can have comparative and superlative forms, as well as diminutive forms.

PREPOSICIONES (preposition)

Prepositions are used to show the relationship between items in the sentence. For instance, these are some of the prepositions you can learn in Spanish:

  • con (with) and sin (without)
  • antes (before) and después (after)
  • arriba (above> and abajo, debajo de (below, underneath)
  • contra (against)

There are prepositions of time, place, direction, sequence, etc.

CONJUNCIONES (conjunctions)

Conjunctions are linkers we use to make sentences and paragraphs more cohesive and natural. The most common ones are y (and) and pero (but). Other common ones are: de manera que, así que, etc.

INTERJECCIONES (interjections)

Interjections are exclamations and sounds one make when speaking to express a certain reaction or emotion:

  • ¡Ay!
  • Uhhh...
  • ¡Ah!

Multiple-choice questions - Preguntas de múltiple opción

Read the following sentences. Choose the option that best describes the word that is in bold.

1. Pedro jugó al fútbol con María anoche.

             

2. Pedro jugó al fútbol con María anoche.

             

3. Pedro jugó al fútbol con María anoche.

             

4. ¡Ay! Esos niños son muy ruidosos!

             

5. ¡Ay! Esos niños son muy ruidosos!

             

6. ¡Ay! Esos niños son muy ruidosos!

             

7. ¡Ay! Esos niños son muy ruidosos!

             

 

TRY A FREE TRIAL CLASS!

Click below to register for a free class with no obligation - no credit card needed.

CLICK FOR YOUR FREE TRIAL CLASS!

vr